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The program focuses on giving Icelandic youth “better options” than drugs and alcohol.

In 1999, a study following the long-term impact of D.A.R.E. (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) concluded that the popular anti-drug program did little to prevent American youth from experimenting with drugs and alcohol.

That same year, the Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis (ICSRA) was born. The institute went on to develop Iceland’s own anti-drug strategy, which did away with old and ineffective strategies (like D.A.R.E.) and instead focused on access to sports, music and art, and parental involvement.

A recent feature by AP News explored the impact of Planet Youth, one of the most successful youth drug and alcohol prevention programs in the world.

The Program’s Approach

“The key to success is to create healthy communities and by that get healthy individuals,” said Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, who founded Planet Youth (formerly “Youth of Iceland”).

Iceland has invested in providing activities (sports, music, art) and facilities (youth centers) to “give kids alternative ways to feel part of a group, and to feel good, rather than through using alcohol and drugs,” according to the Planet Youth website.

The program “is all about society giving better options,” said Reykjavik Mayor Dagur B. Eggertsson.

Prior to Planet Youth, Iceland, too, was contending with problematic substance use among its youth. The government tried to discourage drug and alcohol use through anti-drug “education” (like D.A.R.E.) that we’ve seen for a long time in the United States. But after observing the inefficacy of this approach, Iceland changed course. Rather than fixating on the potential harms of using drugs and alcohol, Planet Youth emphasizes interesting activities and better ways to spend one’s time.

“Telling teenagers not to use drugs can backlash and actually get them curious to try them,” said Sigfusdottir.

Today, Icelandic youth have among the lowest rates of substance abuse in Europe.

Other strategies employed by the Icelandic government to address youth substance abuse include imposing curfews for those under age 16, getting parents more involved in their kids’ lives, banning tobacco and alcohol advertising, and evolving the program based on current data.

The success of Planet Youth has gained the attention of other countries.

According to AP News, ICSRA currently advises 100 communities in 23 countries. Cities in Portugal, Malta, Slovakia, Russia and Kenya have also learned from the Planet Youth model.

Source:  https://www.thefix.com/iceland-anti-drug-program-curbed-substance-abuse  8/01/19

 

NEARLY 800 babies were born suffering the effects of their mother’s drug addiction in the past three years in Scotland – with experts warning the true toll is likely to be higher.

 

New figures show 774 babies were recorded as affected by addiction or suffering withdrawal symptoms from drugs between 2014 and 2017.

The drugs pass from mother to foetus through the bloodstream, resulting in babies suffering a range of withdrawal symptoms after birth and developmental delays in childhood.

Consultant neonatologist Dr Helen Mactier, honorary secretary of the British Association of Perinatal Medicine, said there was a “hidden” number of women who took drugs in pregnancy and varying definitions of drug misuse in pregnancy which meant figures were likely to be an underestimate.

She said: “The problem largely in Scotland is opioid withdrawal – heroin and methadone.

“The baby withdraws from these substances and they are very irritable, cross, unhappy children who can be quite difficult to feed until they finally get over the withdrawal.”

Dr Mactier said at birth the babies were usually small, and had small heads and visual problems. She added there is evidence they suffer developmental delays in early childhood.

The figures, revealed in a written parliamentary answer, show an increase of 80% in cases from the three-year period from 2006-9, when 427 babies were born with the condition.

However, it said the data over time should be treated with caution as there has been an improvement in recording drug misuse.

The highest numbers over the past three years were recorded in Grampian, which had 169 cases. Glasgow had 137 cases, while Tayside recorded 90, Lanarkshire 78 and Lothian 72.

Numbers have been dropping since 2011-14, when a peak of 1,073 cases were recorded.

Dr Mactier, who works at Glasgow’s Princess Royal Maternity Hospital, said having to treat babies born addicted to drugs was becoming less common in recent years.

She said: “The numbers are coming down, but we are not sure why. It is partly because women who use drugs intravenously tend to be older, so are becoming too old to have children.”

However, she pointed out one controversial area was stabilising pregnant addicts on heroin substitutes such as methadone.

She added: “That may be good for the mum, to keep her more stable and out of criminality. It is not entirely clear if that is safe for the babies, so we need more research.”

Scottish Conservative health spokesman Miles Briggs, who obtained the figures, said: “It’s a national tragedy that we see such numbers of babies being born requiring drug dependency support – we need to see action to help prevent this harm occurring.”

Martin Crewe, director of Barnardo’s Scotland, said: “We know how important it is for children to get a good start in life. We would like to see no babies born requiring drug dependency support.”

Source:   Sunday Post  15th October 2018

Scientists at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa) have turned their attention from the mysteries of the cosmos to a more esoteric area of research: what happens when you get a spider stoned.

Their experiments have shown that common house spiders spin their webs in different ways according to the psychotropic drug they have been given. Spiders on marijuana made a reasonable stab at spinning webs but appear to lose concentration about half-way through. Those on Benzedrine – “speed” – spin their webs ”with great gusto, but apparently without much planning, leaving large holes”, according to New Scientist magazine.

Caffeine, one of the most common drugs consumed by Britons in soft drinks, tea and coffee, makes spiders incapable of spinning anything better than a few threads strung together at random. On chloral hydrate, an ingredient of sleeping pills, spiders ”drop off before they even get started”.

Nasa scientists believe the research demonstrates that web-spinning spiders can be used to test drugs because the more toxic the chemical, the more deformed was the web.

The scientists believe their previous work on the geometry of crystals will help them to devise computer programs that can analyse web-building objectively in order to predict the toxicity of new medicines. ”It appears that one of the most telling measures of toxicity is a decrease, in comparison with a normal web, of the numbers of completed sides [of a web]; the greater the toxicity, the more sides the spider fails to complete,” the scientists say.

Paul Hilliard, spider specialist at the Natural History Museum in London, said researchers first discovered the effects of psychotropic drugs on spiders during experiments at the end of the 1960s. The researchers fed caffeine to spiders in the hope of making them spin webs in the late evening rather than the early dawn. The result was eccentric webs rather than earlier spinning, he said.

Source: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/a-spot-of-speed-puts-spiders-in-a-spin-1617194.html April 1995

 

Fentanyl overdoses share many characteristics with heroin overdoses – with some important differences, according to an addiction specialist at Boston Medical Center’s Grayken Center for Addiction.

“Fentanyl is faster acting and more potent than heroin, so overdoses evolve in seconds to minutes, instead of minutes to hours, as we see with heroin overdoses,” says Alexander Walley, M.D., Director of the Boston University Addiction Medicine Fellowship Program and the Inpatient Addiction Medicine Consult Service at Boston Medical Center. “The window during which a bystander can respond shrinks substantially with fentanyl,” said Dr. Walley, who spoke about fentanyl overdoses at the recent annual meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence. He noted that people may not know they are using fentanyl. In addition to being mixed into heroin, fentanyl can be sold as cocaine or counterfeit prescription opioids.

Dr. Walley was the principal investigator of a study published last year by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included interviews with 64 people who survived or witnessed an opioid overdose, as well as a review of medical examiner records of 196 people who died of an opioid overdose.

He found 75 percent of people who witnessed a suspected fentanyl overdose described symptoms as occurring within seconds to minutes. Among people who witnessed the opioid overdose antidote naloxone being administered, 83 percent said that two or more naloxone doses were used before the person responded.

When Dr. Walley and colleagues analyzed death records for people who died of an opioid overdose, they found 76 percent tested positive for fentanyl in March 2015 – up from 44 percent in October 2014. They found 36 percent of fentanyl deaths had evidence of an overdose occurring within seconds to minutes after drug use, and 90 percent of people who died from a fentanyl overdose had no pulse by the time emergency medical services arrived.

Only 6 percent of fentanyl overdose deaths had evidence of lay bystander-administered naloxone. “Although bystanders were frequently present in the general location of overdose death, timely bystander naloxone administration did not occur because bystanders did not have naloxone, were spatially separated or impaired by substance use, or failed to recognize overdose symptoms,” the researchers concluded. “Findings indicate that persons using fentanyl have an increased chance of surviving an overdose if directly observed by someone trained and equipped with sufficient doses of naloxone.”

Dealing With the Fentanyl Crisis

The approach to fentanyl overdoses should be similar to heroin overdoses – except that time is especially of the essence, Dr. Walley noted. “The best way to reduce overdose risk is to not use opioids in the first place,” he said. “But if a person is using opioids, he or she should make sure someone else is observing and is prepared to use naloxone quickly.”

He stressed that for people who use fentanyl or heroin and stop because of treatment or incarceration, and then start taking the drug again upon release, the risk of an overdose is especially high because their tolerance for the drug has decreased.

Early treatment for addiction is especially important in the age of fentanyl, Dr. Walley said. “We need to make a better effort to reach people sooner,” he said. “Fentanyl is so deadly we can’t afford to wait.”

As with other types of opioid use disorders, the recommended treatment for fentanyl addiction is medication – methadone, buprenorphine (Suboxone) or naltrexone (Vivitrol).

“We need to figure out ways to make effective treatments work for patients, rather than make the patients work for the treatment,” Dr. Walley said. “That means making treatment more convenient and patient-centered. We also need to start treatment in in-patient detox programs. We know these people are more vulnerable to overdose when they are discharged, so we should start treatment before then. We also need to engage people who seek help in the emergency room in overdose prevention, harm reduction and treatment.”

 

Source:  https://drugfree.org/drug-and-alcohol-news/featured-news-rapid-response-fentanyl-overdose-critical/?utm_source=pns&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=featured-news-rapid-response-fentanyl-overdose-critical

A new study finds the rise in drug overdose deaths in the United States has contributed to an increase in organ transplants, CNN reports.

Overdose death donors accounted for 1.1 percent of donors in 2000 and 13.4 percent in 2017, representing a 24-fold rise, the researchers report in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

The study also found many organs from overdose-death donors were not used to save lives when they could have been.

“The current epidemic of deaths from overdose is a tragedy. It would also be tragic to continue to underutilize life-saving transplants from donors,” said lead researcher Dr. Christine Durand of Johns Hopkins University. “We have an obligation to optimize the use of all organs donated. The donors, families and patients waiting deserve our best effort to use every gift of life we can.”

 

Source:   https://drugfree.org/drug-and-alcohol-news/rise-drug-overdose-deaths-contributes-increase-organ-transplants/?utm_source=pns&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=rise-drug-overdose-deaths-contributes-increase-organ-transplants

 

 

 

FDA Approved Epidiolex®, a purified form of CDB, this week.

 

Families whose children suffer seizures from epilepsy have asked legislators in several states to “legalize” cannabidiol (CBD), “medicinal” marijuana, and “whole-plant extracts” so they can use them to reduce their children’s seizures. The marijuana industry has been happy to accommodate, helping parents lobby legislators and, when successful, producing CBD products.

But none of these products is approved by FDA as safe or effective. All make unsubstantiated medical claims. Few contain what their labels claim. Some contain contaminants. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 52 people in Utah were poisoned by an unregulated CBD product, which contained a synthetic cannabinoid. The agency warned regulations are needed to address “this emerging public health threat.”

This week, FDA approved Epidiolex to treat two forms of epilepsy in patients ages 2 and older. Epidiolex is an extract of marijuana called cannabidiol (CBD) that is purified and delivers a reliable, consistent dose. Clinical trials proved it reduces epileptic seizures. Now families have a choice. They no longer need to risk giving their children unregulated products that may harm their already fragile health.
Epidiolex

FDA approved
Proven to be safe
Proven to reduce seizures
A purified extract of marijuana that is 99% CBD, less than 1% THC, marijuana’s psychoactive ingredient
Doctors prescribe.
Patients buy at pharmacies.
Likely to be insured.
Likely moved to a lower Schedule
CBD Products States Have Legalized

Not FDA approved
Not proven to be safe
Not proven to reduce seizures
Unpurified extracts containing up to 20% CBD, THC, other components. Some are contaminated.
Doctors recommend.
Patients buy at dispensaries.
Not insured.
Likely to remain in Schedule 1
Many media outlets are reporting that FDA’s approval of Epidiolex means CBD will be placed in a lower schedule of the federal Controlled Substances Act. But FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb clarifies, “This is the approval of one specific CBD medication for a specific use . . . based on well-controlled clinical trials evaluating the use of this compound in the treatment of a specific condition.” Just as Marinol, Cesamet, and Syndros, FDA-approved forms of THC, are in lower schedules but THC remains in Schedule I, Epidiolex is likely to be placed in a lower Schedule while CBD likely will remain in Schedule I.

Commissioner Gottlieb says FDA continues to support rigorous scientific research into potential medical treatments using marijuana or its components but is concerned about the proliferation and illegal marketing of unapproved CBD-containing products making unproven medical claims. FDA will continue to act to end such behavior, he says.

Action is certainly needed. Searching for CBD Oil on Amazon brings up 929 results. All unregulated.


 

 

Examples of unregulated CBD products. None has applied to FDA to conduct clinical trials for FDA approval.

 

 

Read the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s warning about unregulated CBD products here.
Read the FDA announcement of its approval of Epidiolex here.
Read See FDA CBD warning letters here.
Download The Marijuana Report Issue Paper on CBD here.

Disclosure: The author holds stock in GW Pharmaceuticals, the company that makes Epidiolex®.
 

Cancer is a word that conjures up many images. It is a varied disease that affects many people and can leave families distraught. There are fortunately treatments for a large number of these cancers, which work by restricting tumour growth and inducing cell death. However, there are cancers which pose more of a challenge, and so finding new drugs that can fight these ones becomes even more important.

The methods for discovering and developing new drugs, or chemotherapies, simply fall into two camps. The more recent approach has been the design of drugs with a particular molecular target in mind. This is arguably best exemplified by the drug imatinib, notably used to eat leukaemia. After scientists understood that the BCR-ABL hybrid gene was the cause of a certain type of leukaemia it allowed them to develop pharmacological ways to specifically counteract it – by inhibiting the signals inside the cancer cell used to grow and divide. The drug that was born to much fanfare and arguably revolutionised drug development.

Continued improvements in the understanding of the mechanisms inside cells that are hijacked by cancer have helped to improve the way that compounds are designed and then tested clinically. Those that are able to restore the normal function of the signalling pathways disrupted by cancer are an attractive target for drug development.

At least three major pharmaceutical players are in a fight to negate the cancer-supporting action of AKT, for example. This protein kinase – a key regulator of cell function – is a central player in determining cell proliferation and growth, and is intimately linked with a number of other cell communications systems that all work in unison to support a cancer developing. Its level is over-expressed in a number of cancers, and is linked to a poorer prognosis. Consequently, therapeutic interventions to counteract its effects are particularly attractive and potentially lucrative.

Isolating the compound

It was however, never like this. Before the mystery of cancer was opened up, drug discovery was empirical in nature. Through antiquity, a range of flora were said to cure ailments and, using these anecdotes as guides, active ingredients have been extracted, purified and improved. This has been successful, and a number of drugs now form normal members of the pharmacopeia, including aspirin, which was isolated from the white willow, and less familiar anti-cancer drugs such as etoposide, irinotecan and taxol, which were derived from mayapples, camptotheca trees and Pacific yews. There is no doubt of their value in treatment and they’ve been used successfully for over 40 years.

Then there is the cannabis plant. The putative medicinal property of cannabis has been known for some time; indeed, history records show they were used to ease symptoms of gout, malaria and even childbirth. However, the fundamental issue with using cannabis in its whole form as a medicine is its psychoactive properties, so it would make sense to identify the important anti-cancer parts and remove the psychoactive components. Cannabinoids are these. They number around 80, with cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) the two lead medicinal candidates. However, unlike the mayapple and Pacific yew, their development has been seriously curtailed.

Cannabis. M a n u e l, CC BY

It’s likely that the widespread use of cannabis as a recreational drug has affected research into the potential in cannabis – and the result was death by association. I wonder how the early development of CBD and THC would have progressed if it was known by any other name.

Chequered pasts

Drugs with chequered pasts have found redemption; take the thalidomide story. This drug was infamously linked to babies born with deformations; however, serendipitous observations of improvements in leprosy in a patient taking thalidomide in 1965 led to the discovery that it also had important effects on the immune system. Refinements to the chemistry of the drug were made and the result was a new family of drugs that are valuable tools in anti-cancer research and treatment.

The story emphasises the point that medicinal potential of drugs should be seen objectively and guided scientifically. Cannabinoids and cannabis are not the same thing – it’s just that cannabinoids are derived from cannabis. Cannabinoids possess anti-cancer properties, which they achieve through their fundamental interactions with proteins embedded in the signalling pathways in cells that are now seen as particularly interesting for research.

In addition to this direct anti-cancer action, cannabinoids also have the capacity to disrupt the ability of cancer to feed itself by a process called angiogenesis as well as being able to modulate the immune system to make it more hostile towards cancer. Furthermore, CBD and THC appear to support the activity and efficacy of other chemotherapy drugs. Indeed, we recently showed that the cancer-killing property of radiotherapy was dramatically enhanced when cannabinoids were used in combination with this treatment – certain forms of brain cancer were reduced to sizes that were difficult to detect. Taken together, all of these features show a profile with great anti-cancer potential.

However slow things have been, a sea-change has been occurring; there is a palpable sense that legislators are becoming open to the scientific evidence that suggests cannabinoids may possess medicinal quality. Clinical trials using various forms of cannabinoids are now taking place in a number of countries, and we all await the results of these studies.

I hope to be able to change the answer that I give to patients who contact me to ask: “do you think I should be using cannabinoids for my cancer?” from the negative to the affirmative. My frustrating answer has always been it is too early to say, as promising laboratory data has not yet been confirmed by objective clinical studies. This is not a criticism of the drug development system, as convincing clinical trials are needed to ensure patients are given drugs that have been thoroughly tested to ensure the best chance of them fighting their disease.

The flip side of those who passionately shout for the “legalisation of cannabis” is that their call may inadvertently hamper the medical development of cannabinoids, which is a shame. My aim is to deliver a drug that can be used in patients with cancer. And for a headache, no one would suggest you chew on a white willow plant, especially when you could be taking an aspirin. The same is true of cannabis and cannabinoids.

Source:    https://theconversation.com/profiles/wai-liu-144882 

 

From edibles appealing to children to increased use among parents, youth are on the frontlines as America grapples with loosened marijuana access

 

 

In states where marijuana has been legalized, revenues for edibles have skyrocketed. Edibles are food products that contain THC, the substance in marijuana that produces psychological effects, or Cannabidiol (CBD). As marijuana businesses are profiting from these sales, some states are considering the taxation of marijuana products to fill budget gaps. However, most states have seen far less revenue from the taxation of marijuana products than legalization advocates would lead the public to believe, with California receiving less than half of the tax revenue initially projected.

Today, makers of edibles infuse varying quantities of THC into frequently consumed food products such as gummy bears, chocolate bars, beef jerky, soda, and more. With so much money to be made, even major corporations are entering the edibles marketplace. In 2018 Heineken launched “HiFi Hops” a non-alcoholic beer infused with THC; last month the inventor of Jelly Belly® launched a line of CBD-infused jelly beans which promptly sold out; and on April 20th (a noted holiday among marijuana consumers), a Carl’s Junior restaurant will serve the “CheeseBurger Delight,” featuring a CBD-infused sauce. There has been limited research on the effects of CBD among children and adolescents or whether CBD usage normalizes the use of marijuana in general. Therefore, we must be cautious about what the acceptance of marijuana-infused products will have on our society’s understanding of safe marijuana consumption and regulation.

The rise of edibles mimicking popular children’s candies and other frequently purchased family food products has resulted in a troubling increase in marijuana-related hospital visits for minors and adults alike, with legislatures in Colorado and California enacting laws to restrict marketing of edible products and prevent accidental ingestion by minors. However, even with these new marketing restrictions, emergency room visits for minors caused by inhaling or ingesting marijuana continue to rise. In fact, a recent study in the Annals of Internal Medicine reported that “edible products accounted for 10.7% of marijuana-attributable visits between 2014 and 2016 but represented only 0.32% of total marijuana sales in Colorado (in kilograms of tetrahydrocannabinol) during that period.”

Since legalization, marijuana-related traffic deaths increased 151 percent in Colorado, killing drivers, passengers, pedestrians and bicyclists. Furthermore, 48 percent of pediatric marijuana intoxication cases reported to poison control centers in Colorado were attributed to the ingestion of edibles. This double-whammy of decreased regulation of marijuana and increased marketing of marijuana-laced products is detrimental to public health, substance misuse prevention efforts, and puts our kids and teens at risk. Science has taught us that the age of first use of any addictive substance– whether it be marijuana, alcohol, tobacco or another drug– increases the likelihood of that individual going on to develop a substance use disorder in their lifetime, as does exposure to caregiver substance misuse.

The United States is in the midst of an overdose epidemic that is killing more people in one year than car accidents and gun violence. It is imperative that we learn from our mistakes and the actions that could have been taken to prevent the current epidemic, such as investing in evidence-based prevention education, and implement safeguards to prevent future epidemics.

 

Casey Elliott: **Author’s Note: This piece was originally published by Fox News.

Source:  https://www.addictionpolicy.org/blog/edible-marijuana-kids-at-risk   Apr 20, 2019

 

Pregnant women who smoke cannabis almost double the risk of their baby being born autistic, warns a new study.

In the largest ever study of its kind, researchers found that children whose mothers reported using cannabis during pregnancy were at greater risk of autism.

The incidence of autism was four per 1,000 person-years among children exposed to cannabis in pregnancy, compared to 2.42 among unexposed children.

‘There is evidence that more people are using cannabis during pregnancy,’ said senior study author Professor Mark Walker, of the University of Ottawa in Canada.

‘This is concerning, because we know so little about how cannabis affects pregnant women and their babies.

‘Parents-to-be should inform themselves of the possible risks, and we hope studies like ours can help.’

The researchers reviewed data from every birth in Ontario between 2007 and 2012, before recreational cannabis was legalised in Canada.

Of the half a million women in the study, about 3,000 (0.6 per cent) reported using cannabis during pregnancy.

Importantly, these women reported using only cannabis.

The team had previously found that cannabis use in pregnancy was linked to an increased risk of premature birth.

In that study, they found that women who used cannabis during pregnancy often used other substances including tobacco, alcohol and opioids.

Considering those findings, in the current study the researchers specifically looked at the 2,200 women who reported using only cannabis during pregnancy, and no other substances.

The findings, published in the medical journal Nature Medicine. showed that babies born to this group still had an increased risk of autism compared to those who didn’t use cannabis.

The researchers do not know exactly how much cannabis the women were using, how often, at what time during their pregnancy, or how it was consumed.

But as cannabis becomes more socially acceptable, doctors are concerned that some parents-to-be might think it can be used to treat morning sickness.

Dr Daniel Corsi, an epidemiologist at The Ottawa Hospital, said: ‘In the past, we haven’t had good data on the effect of cannabis on pregnancies.’

He added: ‘This is one of the largest studies on this topic to date.

‘We hope our findings will help women and their health-care providers make informed decisions.’

Autism is fairly common, but still poorly understood.

In the US, about one in every 59 children born will fall somewhere on the autism spectrum.

About one in every 66 children in Canada are autistic and, globally, the rate is approximately one in every 160 children.

Research suggests that there is likely some genetic basis for autism,  which is about four-times more common among boys than girls.

But scientists believe exposures in the womb likely play a role as well.

The effects of cannabis are similarly poorly understood to the origins of autism.

Although doctors caution against it, cannabis use has not been linked to miscarriages in humans (though animal studies have suggested an increased risk) and evidence on the link between weed and low birth-weight is mixed.

Marijuana use during pregnancy has been linked, however, to up to 2.3 times greater risks of stillbirth.

The Ottawa Hospital study did not investigate how exactly marijuana use in pregnancy might lead to autism in a child, but scientists believe that the drug’s interaction with the so-called endocannabinoid system within the nervous system could play a role in the development of the behavioral condition.

 

Source:  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-08/toh-cui080620.php

 

Researchers from Dartmouth’s Geisel School of Medicine, whose crest is pictured above, and other academic medical institutions, surveyed 2630 14- to 18-year-olds via Facebook who live in states that have legalized marijuana for medical use (MMJ states), recreational use (RMJ states), and not legalized the drug (NMJ states).

MMJ and RMJ states vary in what they allow, and the researchers wanted to learn if different provisions influence when adolescents begin marijuana use and which provisions may result in increasing use among young people.

The researchers say it is crucial to understand how marijuana legalization laws affect youth because they are more vulnerable to the drug’s harmful effects. Chronic use during adolescence has been associated with impaired brain development, educational achievement, and psychosocial functioning, as well as an increased risk of developing addiction.

Legalization has spurred the development of new marijuana products with higher potencies, such as marijuana-infused foods called edibles and electronic vaping devices that enable a user to inhale the psychoactive ingredients of tobacco and marijuana without the smoke.

Edibles sold in most legal states lack safety standards or products regulations and are marketed in ways that are attractive to youth, the researchers note. These factors are contributing to the sharp increase in marijuana overdoses among young people. Vaping devices are becoming increasingly popular among middle school and high school children who use them to vape marijuana more often than adults. Moreover, data show adolescents are vaping high-potency marijuana products whose impact on neurodevelopment is unknown but concerning because they may place youth at higher risk for psychosis.

The researchers find that youth in legalization states are twice as likely as those in nonlegalization states to have tried vaping. Moreover, youth in legalization states with high dispensary density are twice as likely to have tried vaping and three times more likely to have tried edibles than youth in nonlegalization states.

The kind and duration of marijuana legalization laws also impact youth. Youth in MMJ states are significantly more likely to have tried vaping and edibles than youth in nonlegalization states, and youth in RMJ states are significantly more likely to have tried both than youth in MMJ states. Youth in legal states that allow home cultivation are twice as likely to have tried edibles (but not vaping) as their peers in legal states that prohibit home grows. States with the oldest legalization laws also see increases in youth lifetime vaping and edible use.

Read Science Daily summary here. Read Drug and Alcohol Dependence journal abstract here.

Source: Email from National Families In Action June 2017

Three months ago, National Families in Action published a report, Tracking the Money that is Legalizing Marijuana and Why It Matters, that details where the money comes from to legalize marijuana for medical and recreational use. Most of it was raised by three billionaires and two organizations they fund, the Drug Policy Alliance (DPA) and the Marijuana Policy Project (MPP) to do the work of legalization. The first decade of legalization was accomplished via ballot measures which DPA and/or MPP wrote, paid for collecting voters’ signatures, and paid heavily for advertising with less than accurate information to convince voters to pass them. This effort created a medical marijuana industry that made so much money it began contributing to the legalization effort as well.

In February 2017, five US Representatives formed the Congressional Cannabis Caucus to issue a spate of bills that would set the stage and then ultimately legalize marijuana at the federal level. It turns out that DPA and MPP donations to Congressional campaigns are over-represented among Caucus members and other legislators who are partnering with them to reach this goal. Together, Caucus members, pictured above, and colleagues have introduced more than 20 bills since February.

Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR), who received $3,000 from MPP, has introduced three of those bills and is co-sponsoring seven more.

Rep. Ed Perlmutter (D-CO) received $2,000 from MPP, has introduced one bill, and co-sponsored four more.

Rep. Ed Polis (D-CO), the only Caucus member who has not received donations from either group, has introduced one bill and co-sponsored six more.

Rep. Young (R-AK) received $1,000 from MPP, introduced one bill, and co-sponsored five more.

Rep. Dana Rohrabacher (R-CA) received $7,000 from MPP and $4,700 from DPA, introduced one bill, and co-sponsored five more bills.

Here are the representatives and senators who signed on as co-sponsors of the 20-plus bills who also received donations from DPA and/or MPP as of June 28:

  • Rep. Ruben Gallego (D-AZ) — $5,000/MPP – co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Raul Grijalva (D-AZ) — $1,000/MPP – co-sponsoring 2 bills.
  • Rep. Pete Aguilar (D-CA) — $8,000/MPP — co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Jared Huffman (D-CA) — $3,000/MPP – co-sponsoring 2 bills.
  • Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-CA) — $1,000/MPP – co-sponsoring 3 bills.
  • Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) — $4,500/MPP/$500/DPA – sponsoring 1 bill, co-sponsoring 5 bills.
  • Rep. Alan Lowenthal (D-CA) — $1,000/MPP — co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Mike Coffman (R-CO) — $1,000/MPP — sponsoring 1 bill, co-sponsoring 3 bills.
  • Rep. Diana DeGette (D-CO) — $1,000/DPA – sponsoring 1 bill, co-sponsoring 2 bills.
  • Rep. Joe Courtney (D-CT) — $2,600/MPP – co-sponsoring 2 bills.
  • Rep. Carlos Curbelo (R-FL) — $1,000/MPP – co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Ted Yoho (R-FL) — $1,000/MPP — co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Thomas Massie (R-KY) — $1,000/MPP — co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY) — $3,500/MPP – co-sponsoring 3 bills.
  • Rep. Jamie Raskin (D-MD) — $5,000/MPP — co-sponsoring 2 bills.
  • Rep. Justin Amash (R-MI) — $5,750/MPP/$1,000/DPA — co-sponsoring 3 bills.
  • Rep. John Conyers (D-MI) — $2,500/DPA – co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) — $1,000/MPP — co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Ruben Kihuen (D-NV) — $1,00/MPP – co-sponsoring 2 bills.
  • Sen. Cory Booker (D-NJ) — $1,000/DPA — sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Steve Cohen (D-TN) — $5,500/MPP — sponsoring 1 bill, co-sponsoring 7 bills.
  • Rep. Jim Cooper (D-TN) — $1,000/MPP – co-sponsoring 1 bill.
  • Rep. Beto O’Rourke (D-TX) — $6,000/MPP/$4,500/DPA — co-sponsoring 5 bills.
  • Rep. Mark Pocan (D-WI) — $4,000/MPP — co-sponsoring 3 bills.
  • Sen. Tammy Baldwin (D-WI) — $1,500/MPP — co-sponsoring 1 bill.

People who don’t want to see Congress legalize marijuana nationwide can pay to play too. With few exceptions, these are not large amounts of money. They could be matched to replace MPP’s and DPA’s donations so legislators can work for healthy families and healthy communities instead of the marijuana industry.

The Cannabist, the Denver Post’s marijuana website, published a list of bills these folks have introduced in Congress since the Caucus was formed in February. You can read it here.
Note: a few bills in the list do not deal with legalization.

Source: Email from National Families In Action  June 2017

Items 1 – 193 of 193    (Display the 193 citations in PubMed)

 

1. The Living the Example Social Media Substance Use Prevention Program: A Pilot Evaluation.
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2. Pregnenolone does not interfere with the effects of cannabinoids on synaptic transmission in the cerebellum and the nucleus accumbens.
Krohmer A, Brehm M, Auwärter V, Szabo B.
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3. Tobacco smoking is associated with psychotic experiences in the general population of South London.
Bhavsar V, Jauhar S, Murray RM, Hotopf M, Hatch SL, McNeill A, Boydell J, MacCabe JH.
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4. Seller’s reputation and capacity on the illicit drug markets: 11-month study on the Finnish version of the Silk Road.
Nurmi J, Kaskela T, Perälä J, Oksanen A.
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5. The effects of using answer sheets on reported drug use and data quality in a classroom survey: A cluster-randomized study.
Castillo-Carniglia A, Pizarro E, Marín JD, Rodríguez N, Casas-Cordero C, Cerdá M.
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6. Can a rapid measure of self-exposure to drugs of abuse provide dimensional information on depression comorbidity?
Butelman ER, Bacciardi S, Maremmani AGI, Darst-Campbell M, Correa da Rosa J, Kreek MJ.
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7. Commentary: Navigating the complexities of marijuana.
Weiss S, Wargo EM.
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8. The role of marijuana use disorder in predicting emergency department and inpatient encounters: A retrospective cohort study.
Campbell CI, Bahorik AL, Kline-Simon AH, Satre DD.
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9. Get Real: Evaluation of a Community-Level HIV Prevention Intervention for Young MSM Who Engage in Episodic Substance Use.
Lauby J, Zhu L, Milnamow M, Batson H, Bond L, Curran-Groome W, Carson L.
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10. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) administration after neonatal exposure to phencyclidine potentiates schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes in mice.
Rodríguez G, Neugebauer NM, Yao KL, Meltzer HY, Csernansky JG, Dong H.
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Stephens DB, Young AM, Havens JR.
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Obradovic I.
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13. [Drug use and addictive practices in France].
Beck F.
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14. Psychological symptomatology and impaired prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex are associated with cannabis-induced psychosis.
Morales-Muñoz I, Martínez-Gras I, Ponce G, de la Cruz J, Lora D, Rodríguez-Jiménez R, Jurado-Barba R, Navarrete F, García-Gutiérrez MS, Manzanares J, Rubio G.
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15. Daily associations between cannabis motives and consumption in emerging adults.
Bonar EE, Goldstick JE, Collins RL, Cranford JA, Cunningham RM, Chermack ST, Blow FC, Walton MA.
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16. Substance use among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Agreement between medical records and the ASSIST questionnaire.
Machado IK, Luz PM, Lake JE, Castro R, Velasque L, Clark JL, Veloso VG, Grinsztejn B, De Boni RB.
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Cairns AJ, Kavanagh DJ, Dark F, McPhail SM.
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18. Structural Neuroimaging Correlates of Alcohol and Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Adults.
Thayer RE, YorkWilliams S, Karoly HC, Sabbineni A, Ewing SF, Bryan AD, Hutchison KE.
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19. Epidemiological and sociodemographic factors associated with complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
Monte-Secades R, Blanco-Soto M, Díaz-Peromingo JA, Sanvisens-Bergé A, Martín-González MC, Barbosa A, Rosón-Hernández B, Tejero-Delgado MA, Puerta-Louro R, Rabuñal-Rey R; Grupo de Trabajo Alcohol y Alcoholismo, Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna.
Rev Clin Esp. 2017 Jun 20. pii: S0014-2565(17)30131-5. doi: 10.1016/j.rce.2017.05.002. [Epub ahead of print] English, Spanish.
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20. PLACENTA AS ALTERNATIVE SPECIMEN TO DETECT IN UTERO CANNABIS EXPOSURE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.
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21. Childhood Traumatic Experiences and the Association with Marijuana and Cocaine Use in Adolescence through Adulthood.
Scheidell JD, Quinn K, McGorray SP, Frueh BC, Beharie NN, Cottler LB, Khan MR.
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22. Young people who use drugs engaged in harm reduction programs in New York City: Overdose and other risks.
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24. A little “dab” will do ya’ in: a case report of neuro-and cardiotoxicity following use of cannabis concentrates.
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25. Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines: A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations.
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33. Polysubstance Use Among US Women of Reproductive Age Who Use Opioids for Nonmedical Reasons.
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35. An Atmospheric Pressure Ionization MS/MS Assay using Online Extraction for the Analysis of 11 Cannabinoids and Metabolites in Human Plasma and Urine.
Klawitter J, Sempio C, Mörlein S, De Bloois E, Klepacki J, Henthorn T, Leehey MA, Hoffenberg EJ, Knupp K, Wang GS, Hopfer C, Kinney G, Bowler R, Foreman N, Galinkin J, Christians U, Klawitter J.
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36. Substance use and misuse among children and youth with mental illness : A pilot study.
Herz V, Franzin N, Huemer J, Mairhofer D, Philipp J, Skala K.
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37. Is cannabis treatment for anxiety, mood, and related disorders ready for prime time?
Turna J, Patterson B, Van Ameringen M.
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Aguilar MA, Ledesma JC, Rodríguez-Arias M, Penalva C, Manzanedo C, Miñarro J, Arenas MC.
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39. Cannabis and cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis: The role of gender.
Patel VP, Feinstein A.
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40. Cannabis-associated psychosis: Neural substrate and clinical impact.
Murray RM, Englund A, Abi-Dargham A, Lewis D, Di Forti M, Davies C, Sherif M, McGuire P, D’Souza C.
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41. Evaluation of Oral Fluid as a Specimen for DUID.
Veitenheimer AM, Wagner JR.
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42. Lifetime experience with (classic) psychedelics predicts pro-environmental behavior through an increase in nature relatedness.
Forstmann M, Sagioglou C.
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Declues K, Perez S, Figueroa A.
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44. Drug Policy and Indigenous Peoples.
Burger J, Kapron M.
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45. A Reinforcement Sensitivity Model of Affective and Behavioral Dysregulation in Marijuana Use and Associated Problems.
Emery NN, Simons JS.
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46. Predictors of Substance Use in Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder.
Scalzo F, Hulbert CA, Betts JK, Cotton SM, Chanen AM.
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47. The opioid epidemic is an historic opportunity to improve both prevention and treatment.
DuPont RL.
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48. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.
Chan GCK, Hall W, Freeman TP, Ferris J, Kelly AB, Winstock A.
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49. Associations between anhedonia and marijuana use escalation across mid-adolescence.
Leventhal AM, Cho J, Stone MD, Barrington-Trimis JL, Chou CP, Sussman SY, Riggs NR, Unger JB, Audrain-McGovern J, Strong DR.
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50. Self-reported Cognitive Scales in a U.S. National Survey: Reliability, Validity, and Preliminary Evidence for Associations with Alcohol and Drug Use.
Aharonovich E, Shmulewitz D, Wall MM, Grant BF, Hasin DS.
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51. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine for cannabis use disorder in adults.
Gray KM, Sonne SC, McClure EA, Ghitza UE, Matthews AG, McRae-Clark AL, Carroll KM, Potter JS, Wiest K, Mooney LJ, Hasson A, Walsh SL, Lofwall MR, Babalonis S, Lindblad RW, Sparenborg S, Wahle A, King JS, Baker NL, Tomko RL, Haynes LF, Vandrey RG, Levin FR.
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52. Substantiated childhood maltreatment and young adulthood cannabis use disorders: A pre-birth cohort study.
Abajobir AA, Najman JM, Williams G, Strathearn L, Clavarino A, Kisely S.
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53. Weeding Out the Justification for Marijuana Treatment in Patients with Developmental and Behavioral Conditions.
Nelson T, Liu YH, Bagot KS, Stein MT.
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2017 Jun 15. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000464. [Epub ahead of print]
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54. Prevalence of substance use among middle school-aged e-cigarette users compared with cigarette smokers, non-users and dual users: Implications for primary prevention.
Kristjansson AL, Mann MJ, Smith ML.
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55. Patterns and factors of problematic marijuana use in the Canadian population: Evidence from three cross-sectional surveys.
Bonner WIA, Andkhoie M, Thompson C, Farag M, Szafron M.
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56. Testing the Amotivational Syndrome: Marijuana Use Longitudinally Predicts Lower Self-Efficacy Even After Controlling for Demographics, Personality, and Alcohol and Cigarette Use.
Lac A, Luk JW.
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57. Criminal Charges for Child Harm from Substance Use in Pregnancy.
Angelotta C, Appelbaum PS.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2017 Jun;45(2):193-203.
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58. The new front in the war on doping: Amateur athletes.
Henning AD, Dimeo P.
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59. Daily-level associations between PTSD and cannabis use among young sexual minority women.
Dworkin ER, Kaysen D, Bedard-Gilligan M, Rhew IC, Lee CM.
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60. Freshman Year Alcohol and Marijuana use Prospectively Predict Time to College Graduation and Subsequent Adult Roles and Independence.
Wilhite ER, Ashenhurst JR, Marino EN, Fromme K.
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61. Utilizing Big Data and Twitter to Discover Emergent Online Communities of Cannabis Users.
Baumgartner P, Peiper N.
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62. Contextual Effects of Neighborhoods and Schools on Adolescent and Young Adult Marijuana Use in the United States.
Milliren CE, Richmond TK, Evans CR, Dunn EC, Johnson RM.
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63. Marijuana Use, Recent Marijuana Initiation, and Progression to Marijuana Use Disorder Among Young Male and Female Adolescents Aged 12-14 Living in US Households.
Forman-Hoffman VL, Glasheen C, Batts KR.
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PMID: 28615948 [PubMed – in process] Free PMC Article
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64. Toxicity, Marijuana.
Turner A, Agrawal S.
StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2017 Jun-.
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65. Marijuana.
Turner A, Agrawal S.
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66. Multiple Cerebral Infarcts in a Young Patient Associated With Marijuana Use.
Volpon LC, Sousa CLMM, Moreira SKK, Teixeira SR, Carlotti APCP.
J Addict Med. 2017 Jun 13. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000326. [Epub ahead of print]
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67. The association of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric hospital outcomes.
Rylander M, Winston HR, Medlin H, Hull M, Nussbaum A.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2017 Jun 14:1-12. doi: 10.1080/00952990.2017.1329313. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28613973 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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68. Changes in undergraduates’ marijuana, heavy alcohol, and cigarette use following legalization of recreational marijuana use in Oregon.
Kerr DCR, Bae H, Phibbs S, Kern AC.
Addiction. 2017 Jun 14. doi: 10.1111/add.13906. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28613454 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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69. Influence of Substance Use Disorders on 2-Year HIV Care Retention in the United States.
Hartzler B, Dombrowski JC, Williams JR, Crane HM, Eron JJ, Geng EH, Mathews C, Mayer KH, Moore RD, Mugavero MJ, Napravnik S, Rodriguez B, Donovan DM.
AIDS Behav. 2017 Jun 13. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1826-2. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28612213 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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70. Herbal laxatives and antiemetics in pregnancy.
Samavati R, Ducza E, Hajagos-Tóth J, Gaspar R.
Reprod Toxicol. 2017 Jun 10. pii: S0890-6238(17)30057-6. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.06.041. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28610933 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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71. Examining the influence of adolescent marijuana use on adult intelligence: Further evidence in the causation versus spuriousness debate.
Boccio CM, Beaver KM.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 6;177:199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.04.007. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28609722 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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72. Development of a new extraction technique and HPLC method for the analysis of non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L. (hemp).
Brighenti V, Pellati F, Steinbach M, Maran D, Benvenuti S.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017 Jun 4;143:228-236. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.05.049. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28609672 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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73. Impulsivity as a mechanism linking child abuse and neglect with substance use in adolescence and adulthood.
Oshri A, Kogan SM, Kwon JA, Wickrama KAS, Vanderbroek L, Palmer AA, MacKillop J.
Dev Psychopathol. 2017 Jun 13:1-19. doi: 10.1017/S0954579417000943. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28606210 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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74. Two steps forward, one step back: current harm reduction policy and politics in the United States.
Nadelmann E, LaSalle L.
Harm Reduct J. 2017 Jun 12;14(1):37. doi: 10.1186/s12954-017-0157-y.
PMID: 28606093 [PubMed – in process] Free PMC Article
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75. Cannabis increased the risk of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in tobacco smokers: a case-control study.
Hedevang Olesen W, Katballe N, Sindby JE, Titlestad IL, Andersen PE, Ekholm O, Lindahl-Jacobsen R, Licht PB.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Jun 12. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezx160. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28605480 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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76. Attitudes Toward Medical Cannabis Legalization Among Serbian Medical Students.
Vujcic I, Pavlovic A, Dubljanin E, Maksimovic J, Nikolic A, Sipetic-Grujicic S.
Subst Use Misuse. 2017 Jun 12:1-7. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1302959. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28605305 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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77. Family Structure and Adolescent Substance Use: An International Perspective.
Hoffmann JP.
Subst Use Misuse. 2017 Jun 12:1-17. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1305413. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28605218 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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78. Drug-Avoidance Self-Efficacy Among Exclusive Cannabis Users vs. Other Drug Users Visiting the Emergency Department.
Clingan SE, Woodruff SI.
Subst Use Misuse. 2017 Jun 12:1-7. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2017.1305412. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28605216 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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79. Associations of Bullying and Cyberbullying With Substance Use and Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adults.
Kritsotakis G, Papanikolaou M, Androulakis E, Philalithis AE.
J Nurs Scholarsh. 2017 Jun 12. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12299. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28605163 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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80. Health considerations in regulating marijuana in Vermont.
Chen H, Searles JS.
Prev Med. 2017 Jun 8. pii: S0091-7435(17)30208-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.06.004. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28603006 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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81. Online self-help forums on cannabis: A content assessment.
Greiner C, Chatton A, Khazaal Y.
Patient Educ Couns. 2017 Jun 3. pii: S0738-3991(17)30345-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2017.06.001. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28602568 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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82. Development and initial validation of a marijuana cessation expectancies questionnaire.
Metrik J, Farris SG, Aston ER, Kahler CW.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;177:163-170. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.04.005. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28600928 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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83. Examination of cumulative effects of early adolescent depression on cannabis and alcohol use disorder in late adolescence in a community-based cohort.
Rhew IC, Fleming CB, Stoep AV, Nicodimos S, Zheng C, McCauley E.
Addiction. 2017 Jun 10. doi: 10.1111/add.13907. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28600897 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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84. Ready, willing, and able: The role of cannabis use opportunities in understanding adolescent cannabis use.
Andreas JB, Bretteville-Jensen AL.
Addiction. 2017 Jun 10. doi: 10.1111/add.13901. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28600881 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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85. Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder.
Williams AR, Santaella-Tenorio J, Mauro CM, Levin FR, Martins SS.
Addiction. 2017 Jun 10. doi: 10.1111/add.13904. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28600874 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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86. Substance Use Disorder Treatment Following Clinician-Initiated Discontinuation of Long-Term Opioid Therapy Resulting from an Aberrant Urine Drug Test.
Nugent SM, Dobscha SK, Morasco BJ, Demidenko MI, Meath THA, Frank JW, Lovejoy TI.
J Gen Intern Med. 2017 Jun 9. doi: 10.1007/s11606-017-4084-0. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28600754 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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87. Treating tobacco dependence: guidance for primary care on life-saving interventions. Position statement of the IPCRG.
Van Schayck OCP, Williams S, Barchilon V, Baxter N, Jawad M, Katsaounou PA, Kirenga BJ, Panaitescu C, Tsiligianni KWIG, Zwar N, Ostrem A.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2017 Jun 9;27(1):38. doi: 10.1038/s41533-017-0039-5.
PMID: 28600490 [PubMed – in process] Free PMC Article
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88. Pharmacologic Implications of Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.
Fantasia HC.
Nurs Womens Health. 2017 Jun – Jul;21(3):217-223. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2017.04.002.
PMID: 28599743 [PubMed – in process]
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89. Assessing Marijuana Use During Pregnancy.
Harris AL, Okorie CS.
Nurs Womens Health. 2017 Jun – Jul;21(3):207-216. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2017.04.001.
PMID: 28599742 [PubMed – in process]
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90. Identification of Eight Synthetic Cannabinoids, Including 5F-AKB48 in Seized Herbal Products Using DART-TOF-MS and LC-QTOF-MS as Nontargeted Screening Methods.
Moore KN, Garvin D, Thomas BF, Grabenauer M.
J Forensic Sci. 2017 Jun 9. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.13367. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28597943 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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91. Pharmaco-toxicological effects of the novel third-generation fluorinate synthetic cannabinoids, 5F-ADBINACA, AB-FUBINACA, and STS-135 in mice. In vitro and in vivo studies.
Canazza I, Ossato A, Vincenzi F, Gregori A, Di Rosa F, Nigro F, Rimessi A, Pinton P, Varani K, Borea PA, Marti M.
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2017 May;32(3). doi: 10.1002/hup.2601. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
PMID: 28597570 [PubMed – in process]
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92. Teens who use cannabis show higher risk of taking other illicit drugs.
Kmietowicz Z.
BMJ. 2017 Jun 7;357:j2791. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j2791. No abstract available.
PMID: 28596243 [PubMed – in process]
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93. Hemorrhagic stroke after cannabis use in a young man.
El Mesbahy J, Chraa M, Louhab N, Kissani N.
Rev Neurol (Paris). 2017 Jun 5. pii: S0035-3787(17)30018-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2017.05.002. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.
PMID: 28595976 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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94. Marijuana Use in the Elderly: Implications and Considerations.
Mahvan TD, Hilaire ML, Mann A, Brown A, Linn B, Gardner T, Lai B.
Consult Pharm. 2017 Jun 1;32(6):341-351. doi: 10.4140/TCP.n.2017.341.
PMID: 28595684 [PubMed – in process]
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95. Neuroprotective effects of drug-induced therapeutic hypothermia in central nervous system diseases.
Ma J, Wang Y, Wang Z, Li H, Wang Z, Chen G.
Curr Drug Targets. 2017 Jun 6. doi: 10.2174/1389450118666170607104251. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28595536 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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96. Atrial fibrillation following synthetic cannabinoid abuse.
Efe TH, Felekoglu MA, Çimen T, Doğan M.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2017 Jun;45(4):362-364. doi: 10.5543/tkda.2016.70367.
PMID: 28595208 [PubMed – in process] Free Article
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97. Comparing Medical and Recreational Cannabis Users on Socio-Demographic, Substance and Medication Use, and Health and Disability Characteristics.
Goulet-Stock S, Rueda S, Vafaei A, Ialomiteanu A, Manthey J, Rehm J, Fischer B.
Eur Addict Res. 2017 Jun 9;23(3):129-135. doi: 10.1159/000475987. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28595191 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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98. The role of mindfulness skills in terms of anxiety-related cognitive risk factors among college students with problematic alcohol use.
Kraemer KM, O’Bryan EM, Johnson AL, McLeish AC.
Subst Abus. 2017 Jun 8:1-7. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2017.1340394. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28594607 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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99. Patterns of cannabis use during adolescence and their association with harmful substance use behaviour: findings from a UK birth cohort.
Taylor M, Collin SM, Munafò MR, MacLeod J, Hickman M, Heron J.
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Jun 7. pii: jech-2016-208503. doi: 10.1136/jech-2016-208503. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28592420 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] Free Article
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100. Pilot Studies Examining Feasibility of Substance Use Disorder Screening and Treatment Linkage at Urban Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics.
Gryczynski J, Nordeck CD, Mitchell SG, Page KR, Johnsen LL, O’Grady KE, Schwartz RP.
J Addict Med. 2017 Jun 5. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000327. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28590392 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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101. Cigarette Smoking among Women Who Are Homeless or Unstably Housed: Examining the Role of Food Insecurity.
Kim JE, Flentje A, Tsoh JY, Riley ED.
J Urban Health. 2017 Jun 6. doi: 10.1007/s11524-017-0166-x. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28589340 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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102. The cannabis paradox: when age matters.
Ozaita A, Aso E.
Nat Med. 2017 Jun 6;23(6):661-662. doi: 10.1038/nm.4348. No abstract available.
PMID: 28586333 [PubMed – in process]
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103. Microorganism design for heterologous biosynthesis of cannabinoids.
Ângela C, Hansen EH, Kayser O, Carlsen S, Stehle F.
FEMS Yeast Res. 2017 Jun 4. doi: 10.1093/femsyr/fox037. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28582498 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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104. Recommendation to reconsider examining cannabis subtypes together due to opposing effects on brain, cognition and behavior.
Rømer Thomsen K, Callesen MB, Feldstein Ewing SW.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2017 Jun 1;80:156-158. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.05.025. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28579491 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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105. Intoxication by gamma hydroxybutyrate and related analogues: Clinical characteristics and comparison between pure intoxication and that combined with other substances of abuse.
Miró Ò, Galicia M, Dargan P, Dines AM, Giraudon I, Heyerdahl F, Hovda KE, Yates C, Wood DM; Euro-DEN Research Group.
Toxicol Lett. 2017 Jun 1;277:84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.05.030. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28579487 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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106. Suppression of STAT3 Signaling by Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Induces Trophoblast Dysfunction.
Chang X, Bian Y, He Q, Yao J, Zhu J, Wu J, Wang K, Duan T.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017 Jun 5;42(2):537-550. doi: 10.1159/000477603. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28578322 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher] Free Article
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107. Marijuana Liberalization, Research, and Policy: Contributions to Current Knowledge and Practice.
Sevigny EL.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):211-216. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0480-9. No abstract available.
PMID: 28573421 [PubMed – in process]
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108. Oral fluid testing for marijuana intoxication: enhancing objectivity for roadside DUI testing.
Doucette ML, Frattaroli S, Vernick JS.
Inj Prev. 2017 Jun 1. pii: injuryprev-2016-042264. doi: 10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042264. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28572268 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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109. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: A disorder of the HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system?
Richards JR.
Med Hypotheses. 2017 Jun;103:90-95. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2017.04.018. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
PMID: 28571820 [PubMed – in process]
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110. The effect of antioxidants on the long-term stability of THC and related cannabinoids in sampled whole blood.
Sørensen LK, Hasselstrøm JB.
Drug Test Anal. 2017 Jun 1. doi: 10.1002/dta.2221. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28570781 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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111. NBOMe hallucinogenic drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre.
Madsen GR, Petersen TS, Dalhoff KP.
Dan Med J. 2017 Jun;64(6). pii: A5386.
PMID: 28566118 [PubMed – in process]
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112. Biodegradation of phenol and benzene by endophytic bacterial strains isolated from refinery wastewater-fed Cannabis sativa.
Iqbal A, Arshad M, Hashmi I, Karthikeyan R, Gentry TJ, Schwab AP.
Environ Technol. 2017 Jun 13:1-10. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1337232. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 28562230 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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113. Use of Marijuana Among Pregnant Women Increases.
Rosenberg K.
Am J Nurs. 2017 Jun;117(6):70-71. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000520260.72706.3c. No abstract available.
PMID: 28541996 [PubMed – in process]
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114. Characteristics of clients currently accessing a national online alcohol and drug counselling service.
Garde EL, Manning V, Lubman DI.
Australas Psychiatry. 2017 Jun;25(3):250-253. doi: 10.1177/1039856216689623. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
PMID: 28541729 [PubMed – in process]
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115. Special Issue of the Journal of Primary Prevention: Research Related to Marijuana Use and Possession Policies.
Friend KB, Friese B, Freisthler B.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):217-220. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0477-4. No abstract available.
PMID: 28536744 [PubMed – in process]
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116. Erratum to: Evaluating the Change in Medical Marijuana Dispensary Locations in Los Angeles Following the Passage of Local Legislation.
Thomas C, Freisthler B.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):343. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0479-2. No abstract available.
PMID: 28527026 [PubMed – in process]
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117. [CNS metabolism in high-risk drug abuse, German version : Insights gained from <sup>1</sup>H- and <sup>31</sup>P MRS and PET].
Bodea SV.
Radiologe. 2017 Jun;57(6):443-449. doi: 10.1007/s00117-017-0254-7. Review. German.
PMID: 28516232 [PubMed – in process]
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118. Marijuana and the Risk of Fatal Car Crashes: What Can We Learn from FARS and NRS Data?
Romano E, Torres-Saavedra P, Voas RB, Lacey JH.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):315-328. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0478-3.
PMID: 28500615 [PubMed – in process]
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119. Changing Demographics of Marijuana Initiation: Bad News or Good?
Grucza RA.
Am J Public Health. 2017 Jun;107(6):833-834. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303804. No abstract available.
PMID: 28498750 [PubMed – in process]
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120. School Protective Factors and Substance Use Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents in California Public Schools.
De Pedro KT, Esqueda MC, Gilreath TD.
LGBT Health. 2017 Jun;4(3):210-216. doi: 10.1089/lgbt.2016.0132. Epub 2017 May 12.
PMID: 28498005 [PubMed – in process]
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121. The 2017 CALDAR Summer Institute and International Conference Promoting Global Health-Precision Research in Substance Abuse, HIV, and Care.
Hser YI, Li MD, Grella C, Brecht L, Chen Z, Chang SL, Chang L, Normand J, Tai B.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2017 Jun;12(Suppl 2):79-80. doi: 10.1007/s11481-017-9750-9.
PMID: 28497234 [PubMed – in process]
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122. The synthetic cannabinoid WIN-55,212 induced-apoptosis in cytotrophoblasts cells by a mechanism dependent on CB1 receptor.
Almada M, Costa L, Fonseca BM, Amaral C, Teixeira N, Correia-da-Silva G.
Toxicology. 2017 Jun 15;385:67-73. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2017.04.013. Epub 2017 May 8.
PMID: 28495606 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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123. Medical Marijuana Legalization and Marijuana Use Among Youth in Oregon.
Paschall MJ, Grube JW, Biglan A.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):329-341. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0476-5.
PMID: 28484894 [PubMed – in process]
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124. The New Cannabis Policy Taxonomy on APIS: Making Sense of the Cannabis Policy Universe.
Klitzner MD, Thomas S, Schuler J, Hilton M, Mosher J.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):295-314. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0475-6.
PMID: 28477299 [PubMed – in process]
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125. Medical cannabis use among patients with chronic pain in an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program: Characterization and treatment outcomes.
Shah A, Craner J, Cunningham JL.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Jun;77:95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.03.012. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
PMID: 28476279 [PubMed – in process]
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126. Outcomes of a family-based HIV prevention intervention for substance using juvenile offenders.
Tolou-Shams M, Dauria E, Conrad SM, Kemp K, Johnson S, Brown LK.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Jun;77:115-125. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.03.013. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
PMID: 28476263 [PubMed – in process]
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127. Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis.
Zaka M, Sehgal SA, Shafique S, Abbasi BH.
J Mol Graph Model. 2017 Jun;74:296-304. doi: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2017.04.013. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
PMID: 28472734 [PubMed – in process]
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128. The Experiences of Medical Marijuana Patients: A Scoping Review of the Qualitative Literature.
Ryan J, Sharts-Hopko N.
J Neurosci Nurs. 2017 Jun;49(3):185-190. doi: 10.1097/JNN.0000000000000283.
PMID: 28471927 [PubMed – in process]
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129. Use of Marijuana Edibles by Adolescents in California.
Friese B, Slater MD, Battle RS.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):279-294. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0474-7.
PMID: 28470448 [PubMed – in process]
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130. Early Impacts of Marijuana Legalization: An Evaluation of Prices in Colorado and Washington.
Hunt P, Pacula RL.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):221-248. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0471-x.
PMID: 28456861 [PubMed – in process]
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131. Substance use and suicide risk in a sample of young Colombian adults: An exploration of psychosocial factors.
Pereira-Morales AJ, Adan A, Camargo A, Forero DA.
Am J Addict. 2017 Jun;26(4):388-394. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12552. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
PMID: 28456010 [PubMed – in process]
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132. Evaluating the Change in Medical Marijuana Dispensary Locations in Los Angeles Following the Passage of Local Legislation.
Thomas C, Freisthler B.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):265-277. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0473-8. Erratum in: J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):343.
PMID: 28455643 [PubMed – in process]
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133. From Medical to Recreational Marijuana Sales: Marijuana Outlets and Crime in an Era of Changing Marijuana Legislation.
Freisthler B, Gaidus A, Tam C, Ponicki WR, Gruenewald PJ.
J Prim Prev. 2017 Jun;38(3):249-263. doi: 10.1007/s10935-017-0472-9.
PMID: 28451984 [PubMed – in process]
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134. Support for marijuana legalization in the US state of Washington has continued to increase through 2016.
Subbaraman MS, Kerr WC.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;175:205-209. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.02.015. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
PMID: 28448904 [PubMed – in process]
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135. Characteristics of socially withdrawn youth in France: A retrospective study.
Chauliac N, Couillet A, Faivre S, Brochard N, Terra JL.
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2017 Jun;63(4):339-344. doi: 10.1177/0020764017704474. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
PMID: 28446040 [PubMed – in process]
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136. Medical Marijuana Laws and Cannabis Use: Intersections of Health and Policy.
Compton WM, Volkow ND, Lopez MF.
JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 1;74(6):559-560. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0723. No abstract available.
PMID: 28445570 [PubMed – in process]
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137. US Adult Illicit Cannabis Use, Cannabis Use Disorder, and Medical Marijuana Laws: 1991-1992 to 2012-2013.
Hasin DS, Sarvet AL, Cerdá M, Keyes KM, Stohl M, Galea S, Wall MM.
JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 1;74(6):579-588. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0724.
PMID: 28445557 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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138. Marijuana and tobacco cigarettes: Estimating their behavioral economic relationship using purchasing tasks.
Peters EN, Rosenberry ZR, Schauer GL, O’Grady KE, Johnson PS.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Jun;25(3):208-215. doi: 10.1037/pha0000122. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
PMID: 28437124 [PubMed – in process]
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139. Follow-up treatment effects of contingency management and motivational interviewing on substance use: A meta-analysis.
Sayegh CS, Huey SJ, Zara EJ, Jhaveri K.
Psychol Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;31(4):403-414. doi: 10.1037/adb0000277. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
PMID: 28437121 [PubMed – in process]
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140. The association of psychiatric comorbidity with treatment completion among clients admitted to substance use treatment programs in a U.S. national sample.
Krawczyk N, Feder KA, Saloner B, Crum RM, Kealhofer M, Mojtabai R.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;175:157-163. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.02.006. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
PMID: 28432939 [PubMed – in process]
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141. What is the Current Knowledge About the Cardiovascular Risk for Users of Cannabis-Based Products? A Systematic Review.
Jouanjus E, Raymond V, Lapeyre-Mestre M, Wolff V.
Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2017 Jun;19(6):26. doi: 10.1007/s11883-017-0663-0. Review.
PMID: 28432636 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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142. The Influence of College Attendance on Risk for Marijuana Initiation in the United States: 1977 to 2015.
Miech RA, Patrick ME, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD.
Am J Public Health. 2017 Jun;107(6):996-1002. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303745. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
PMID: 28426314 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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143. The influence of substance use on depressive symptoms among young adult black men: The sensitizing effect of early adversity.
Kogan SM, Cho J, Oshri A, MacKillop J.
Am J Addict. 2017 Jun;26(4):400-406. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12555. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
PMID: 28426146 [PubMed – in process]
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144. Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study.
Hasler BP, Franzen PL, de Zambotti M, Prouty D, Brown SA, Tapert SF, Pfefferbaum A, Pohl KM, Sullivan EV, De Bellis MD, Nagel BJ, Baker FC, Colrain IM, Clark DB.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 Jun;41(6):1154-1165. doi: 10.1111/acer.13401. Epub 2017 May 29.
PMID: 28421617 [PubMed – in process]
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145. <i>S100A10</i> identified in a genome-wide gene × cannabis dependence interaction analysis of risky sexual behaviours.
Polimanti R, Meda SA, Pearlson GD, Zhao H, Sherva R, Farrer LA, Kranzler HR, Gelernter J.
J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2017 Jun;42(4):252-261.
PMID: 28418321 [PubMed – in process] Free Article
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146. Cognitive functioning of adolescent and young adult cannabis users in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort.
Scott JC, Wolf DH, Calkins ME, Bach EC, Weidner J, Ruparel K, Moore TM, Jones JD, Jackson CT, Gur RE, Gur RC.
Psychol Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;31(4):423-434. doi: 10.1037/adb0000268. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
PMID: 28414475 [PubMed – in process]
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147. Abstinence based incentives plus parent training for adolescent alcohol and other substance misuse.
Stanger C, Scherer EA, Babbin SF, Ryan SR, Budney AJ.
Psychol Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;31(4):385-392. doi: 10.1037/adb0000279. Epub 2017 Apr 17.
PMID: 28414474 [PubMed – in process]
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148. The role of illicit, licit, and designer drugs in the traffic in Hungary.
Institóris L, Hidvégi E, Dobos A, Sija É, Kereszty ÉM, Tajti LB, Somogyi GP, Varga T.
Forensic Sci Int. 2017 Jun;275:234-241. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.03.021. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
PMID: 28412575 [PubMed – in process]
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149. Work place drug testing of police officers after THC exposure during large volume cannabis seizures.
Doran GS, Deans R, De Filippis C, Kostakis C, Howitt JA.
Forensic Sci Int. 2017 Jun;275:224-233. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.03.023. Epub 2017 Apr 2.
PMID: 28412574 [PubMed – in process]
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150. Selective attention moderates the relationship between attentional capture by signals of nondrug reward and illicit drug use.
Albertella L, Copeland J, Pearson D, Watson P, Wiers RW, Le Pelley ME.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;175:99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.041. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
PMID: 28411561 [PubMed – in process]
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151. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.
Newmeyer MN, Swortwood MJ, Abulseoud OA, Huestis MA.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;175:67-76. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.02.003. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
PMID: 28407543 [PubMed – in process]
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152. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana.
Tsai J, Rolle IV, Singh T, Boulet SL, McAfee TA, Grant AM.
Prev Med Rep. 2017 Mar 23;6:251-257. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.03.014. eCollection 2017 Jun.
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153. Street racing among the Ontario adult population: Prevalence and association with collision risk.
Wickens CM, Smart RG, Vingilis E, Ialomiteanu AR, Stoduto G, Mann RE.
Accid Anal Prev. 2017 Jun;103:85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2017.03.021. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
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154. In Reply: “The importance of recognizing cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome from synthetic marijuana use”.
Sorensen CJ, DeSanto K, Borgelt L, Phillips KT, Monte AA.
J Med Toxicol. 2017 Jun;13(2):201. doi: 10.1007/s13181-017-0613-9. Epub 2017 Apr 5. No abstract available.
PMID: 28382464 [PubMed – in process]
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155. E-cigarette use of young adults motivations and associations with combustible cigarette alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs.
Temple JR, Shorey RC, Lu Y, Torres E, Stuart GL, Le VD.
Am J Addict. 2017 Jun;26(4):343-348. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12530. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
PMID: 28370717 [PubMed – in process]
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156. The feasibility and acceptability of a population-level antenatal risk factor survey: Cross-sectional pilot study.
Price AM, Bryson HE, Mensah F, Kemp L, Bishop L, Goldfeld S.
J Paediatr Child Health. 2017 Jun;53(6):572-577. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13510. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
PMID: 28370603 [PubMed – in process]
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157. Pharmacologic Treatment of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Systematic Review.
Richards JR, Gordon BK, Danielson AR, Moulin AK.
Pharmacotherapy. 2017 Jun;37(6):725-734. doi: 10.1002/phar.1931. Epub 2017 May 12. Review.
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158. A natural product from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa inhibits homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), attenuating MPP<sup>+</sup>-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
Wang G, Zhu L, Zhao Y, Gao S, Sun D, Yuan J, Huang Y, Zhang X, Yao X.
Bioorg Chem. 2017 Jun;72:64-73. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.03.011. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
PMID: 28366826 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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159. Relations between mental health diagnoses, mental health treatment, and substance use in homeless youth.
Narendorf SC, Cross MB, Santa Maria D, Swank PR, Bordnick PS.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 Jun 1;175:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.01.028. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
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160. The Importance of Recognizing Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome from Synthetic Marijuana Use.
Liu X, Villamagna A, Yoo J.
J Med Toxicol. 2017 Jun;13(2):199-200. doi: 10.1007/s13181-017-0612-x. Epub 2017 Mar 28. No abstract available.
PMID: 28353201 [PubMed – in process]
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161. Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn’s Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Naftali T, Mechulam R, Marii A, Gabay G, Stein A, Bronshtain M, Laish I, Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM.
Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Jun;62(6):1615-1620. doi: 10.1007/s10620-017-4540-z. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
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162. Functional Neuroimaging Predictors of Self-Reported Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents.
Bourque J, Spechler PA, Potvin S, Whelan R, Banaschewski T, Bokde ALW, Bromberg U, Büchel C, Quinlan EB, Desrivières S, Flor H, Frouin V, Gowland P, Heinz A, Ittermann B, Martinot JL, Paillère-Martinot ML, McEwen SC, Nees F, Orfanos DP, Paus T, Poustka L, Smolka MN, Vetter NC, Walter H, Schumann G, Garavan H, Conrod PJ; IMAGEN Consortium.
Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 1;174(6):566-575. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16080897. Epub 2017 Mar 21.
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163. Cannabis Use, Polysubstance Use, and Psychosis Spectrum Symptoms in a Community-Based Sample of U.S. Youth.
Jones JD, Calkins ME, Scott JC, Bach EC, Gur RE.
J Adolesc Health. 2017 Jun;60(6):653-659. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.01.006. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
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164. Long lasting effects of chronic heavy cannabis abuse.
Nestoros JN, Vakonaki E, Tzatzarakis MN, Alegakis A, Skondras MD, Tsatsakis AM.
Am J Addict. 2017 Jun;26(4):335-342. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12529. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
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165. Social mediation of persuasive media in adolescent substance prevention.
Crano WD, Alvaro EM, Tan CN, Siegel JT.
Psychol Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;31(4):479-487. doi: 10.1037/adb0000265. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
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166. In Response to Letter to the Editor Regarding: Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment-a Systematic Review.
Sorensen CJ, DeSanto K, Borgelt L, Phillips KT, Monte AA.
J Med Toxicol. 2017 Jun;13(2):198. doi: 10.1007/s13181-017-0610-z. Epub 2017 Mar 10. No abstract available.
PMID: 28283940 [PubMed – in process]
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167. Effects of a brief, parent-focused intervention for substance using adolescents and their sibling.
Spirito A, Hernandez L, Marceau K, Cancilliere MK, Barnett NP, Graves HR, Rodriguez AM, Knopik VS.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Jun;77:156-165. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.02.002. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
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168. Eveningness among late adolescent males predicts neural reactivity to reward and alcohol dependence 2 years later.
Hasler BP, Casement MD, Sitnick SL, Shaw DS, Forbes EE.
Behav Brain Res. 2017 Jun 1;327:112-120. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.02.024. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
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169. The association between traumatic life events and psychological symptoms from a conservative, transdiagnostic perspective.
Gibson LE, Cooper S, Reeves LE, Anglin DM, Ellman LM.
Psychiatry Res. 2017 Jun;252:70-74. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.02.047. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
PMID: 28254578 [PubMed – in process]
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170. Electronic Cigarette Use by Youth: Prevalence, Correlates, and Use Trajectories From Middle to High School.
Westling E, Rusby JC, Crowley R, Light JM.
J Adolesc Health. 2017 Jun;60(6):660-666. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.12.019. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
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171. Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.
Osborne AL, Solowij N, Babic I, Huang XF, Weston-Green K.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Jun;42(7):1447-1457. doi: 10.1038/npp.2017.40. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
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172. Older adults who use or have used marijuana: Help-seeking for marijuana and other substance use problems.
Choi NG, DiNitto DM, Marti CN.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Jun;77:185-192. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2017.02.005. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
PMID: 28216197 [PubMed – in process]
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173. Association Between Substance Use Diagnoses and Psychiatric Disorders in an Adolescent and Young Adult Clinic-Based Population.
Welsh JW, Knight JR, Hou SS, Malowney M, Schram P, Sherritt L, Boyd JW.
J Adolesc Health. 2017 Jun;60(6):648-652. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.12.018. Epub 2017 Feb 12.
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174. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.
McGinty EE, Niederdeppe J, Heley K, Barry CL.
Prev Med. 2017 Jun;99:80-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.01.024. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
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175. Trends of Cannabis Use Disorder in the Inpatient: 2002 to 2011.
Charilaou P, Agnihotri K, Garcia P, Badheka A, Frenia D, Yegneswaran B.
Am J Med. 2017 Jun;130(6):678-687.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.12.035. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
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176. The effect of attitudinal barriers to mental health treatment on cannabis use and mediation through coping motives.
Fanale CM, Maarhuis P, Wright BR, Caffrey K.
Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;69:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.01.018. Epub 2017 Jan 6. No abstract available.
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177. Cannabis use disorder and suicide attempts in Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans.
Kimbrel NA, Newins AR, Dedert EA, Van Voorhees EE, Elbogen EB, Naylor JC, Ryan Wagner H, Brancu M; VA Mid-Atlantic MIRECC Workgroup, Beckham JC, Calhoun PS.
J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Jun;89:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.01.002. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
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178. A cannabigerol-rich Cannabis sativa extract, devoid of [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol, elicits hyperphagia in rats.
Brierley DI, Samuels J, Duncan M, Whalley BJ, Williams CM.
Behav Pharmacol. 2017 Jun;28(4):280-284. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000285.
PMID: 28125508 [PubMed – in process]
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179. Urine drug screen findings among ambulatory oncology patients in a supportive care clinic.
Rauenzahn S, Sima A, Cassel B, Noreika D, Gomez TH, Ryan L, Wolf CE, Legakis L, Del Fabbro E.
Support Care Cancer. 2017 Jun;25(6):1859-1864. doi: 10.1007/s00520-017-3575-1. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
PMID: 28120116 [PubMed – in process]
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180. Marijuana protective behavioral strategies as a moderator of the effects of risk/protective factors on marijuana-related outcomes.
Bravo AJ, Anthenien AM, Prince MA, Pearson MR; Marijuana Outcomes Study Team.
Addict Behav. 2017 Jun;69:14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.01.007. Epub 2017 Jan 8.
PMID: 28110137 [PubMed – in process]
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181. Behavioral Determinants of Cannabinoid Self-Administration in Old World Monkeys.
John WS, Martin TJ, Nader MA.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Jun;42(7):1522-1530. doi: 10.1038/npp.2017.2. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
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182. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.
Nelson KM, Carey KB, Scott-Sheldon LAJ, Eckert TL, Park A, Vanable PA, Ewart CK, Carey MP.
Ann Behav Med. 2017 Jun;51(3):416-422. doi: 10.1007/s12160-016-9865-x.
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183. Effects of environmental risks and polygenic loading for schizophrenia on cortical thickness.
Neilson E, Bois C, Gibson J, Duff B, Watson A, Roberts N, Brandon NJ, Dunlop J, Hall J, McIntosh AM, Whalley HC, Lawrie SM.
Schizophr Res. 2017 Jun;184:128-136. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2016.12.011. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
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184. Cannabidiol Activates Neuronal Precursor Genes in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.
Soundara Rajan T, Giacoppo S, Scionti D, Diomede F, Grassi G, Pollastro F, Piattelli A, Bramanti P, Mazzon E, Trubiani O.
J Cell Biochem. 2017 Jun;118(6):1531-1546. doi: 10.1002/jcb.25815. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
PMID: 27918106 [PubMed – in process]
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185. Trying to remember: Effort mediates the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and memory performance.
Hirst RB, Young KR, Sodos LM, Wickham RE, Earleywine M.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2017 Jun;39(5):502-512. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2016.1237617. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
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186. Consequences of Violent Victimization for Native American Youth in Early Adulthood.
Turanovic JJ, Pratt TC.
J Youth Adolesc. 2017 Jun;46(6):1333-1350. doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0587-y. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
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187. The replicability of cannabis use prevalence estimates in the United States.
Alshaarawy O, Anthony JC.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2017 Jun;26(2). doi: 10.1002/mpr.1524. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
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188. Cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid after controlled smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.
Swortwood MJ, Newmeyer MN, Andersson M, Abulseoud OA, Scheidweiler KB, Huestis MA.
Drug Test Anal. 2017 Jun;9(6):905-915. doi: 10.1002/dta.2092. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
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189. Determination of cannabinoids in hemp nut products in Taiwan by HPLC-MS/MS coupled with chemometric analysis: quality evaluation and a pilot human study.
Chang CW, Tung CW, Tsai CC, Wu YT, Hsu MC.
Drug Test Anal. 2017 Jun;9(6):888-897. doi: 10.1002/dta.2062. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
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190. Effects of Cognitive Distortions on the Link Between Dating Violence Exposure and Substance Problems in Clinically Hospitalized Youth.
Miller AB, Williams C, Day C, Esposito-Smythers C.
J Clin Psychol. 2017 Jun;73(6):733-744. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22373. Epub 2016 Aug 23.
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191. Clozapine users in Australia: their characteristics and experiences of care based on data from the 2010 National Survey of High Impact Psychosis.
Siskind DJ, Harris M, Phillipou A, Morgan VA, Waterreus A, Galletly C, Carr VJ, Harvey C, Castle D.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2017 Jun;26(3):325-337. doi: 10.1017/S2045796016000305. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
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192. Estimated probability of becoming a case of drug dependence in relation to duration of drug-taking experience: a functional analysis approach.
Vsevolozhskaya OA, Anthony JC.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2017 Jun;26(2). doi: 10.1002/mpr.1513. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
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193. Gambling Type, Substance Abuse, Health and Psychosocial Correlates of Male and Female Problem Gamblers in a Nationally Representative French Sample.
Bonnaire C, Kovess-Masfety V, Guignard R, Richard JB, du Roscoät E, Beck F.
J Gambl Stud. 2017 Jun;33(2):343-369. doi: 10.1007/s10899-016-9628-4.
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The Colorado Attorney General announced another round of indictments, this time over marijuana tax evasion. Only recently the state indicted 74 individuals and facilities that were growing marijuana legally but shipping it illegally out of state. That was the largest marijuana black market bust in the state’s history.

In this case, thirteen people were charged with allegedly running a criminal enterprise that distributed 200 pounds of marijuana. Those indicted include the owners and others affiliated with a head shop called Hoppz’ Cropz in Colorado Springs. They allegedly sold small items like a lighter worth 5 cents for $15 and gave away an ounce of marijuana for free, and evaded paying fees associated with the retail marijuana licensing system in Colorado and avoided paying excise taxes.

Hoppz’ Cropz owners, managers, and employees also allegedly avoided paying wage withholding taxes by receiving “under the table” wages. Managers allegedly told employees to tell government officials who might inquire that they were volunteers who worked for free.

At the announcement of the indictments, a district attorney said marijuana is the gateway drug for murder. Colorado Springs had 22 homicides in 2016. Eight were directly connected to illegal marijuana grows, he said. Local authorities are overwhelmed trying to stop marijuana crimes. Colorado pot is pouring out of the state, and is worth more on New York streets than in Denver, he added. Homelessness has gone up 50 percent a year since the state legalized.

Read KKTV.com story here.

Source: Email from National Families In Action The Marijuana Report The Marijuana Report.Org August 2017

California will launch a fully legal, commercial marijuana industry January 1, 2018. TV celebrity Montel Williams, who has advocated for medical and recreational legalization for the past two decades, is entering the business with a brand of his own called LenitivLabs.
 
He’s not in it for the money, he says. “A lot of people are jumping into the green rush and want to make as much cash as fast as they can. I am a person who helped create this green rush. But I want to sell medication. You want to buy some Bob Marley or some O.G. Kush — go ahead. If you want to pick up something for your aunt who has epilepsy, get something produced with the highest standards.”
 
Because no uniform, national standards for purity, safety, or efficacy exist for marijuana produced in states that have legalized it, it is difficult to say how the highest standards might be reached, and Mr. Williams does not enlighten us.
 
His line of products, already available at select dispensaries, include “cannabinoid oils” of varying potency. Some oils, he explains, contain THC levels of 70 percent, CBD levels of 30 percent while others reverse those ratios.
 
He has attracted to his advisory board such heavy hitters as a former CIA director, a retired vice admiral, a former congressman, and an ex-NFL player – all good men but none with the pharmacological expertise to guide the development of the “medicines” Mr. Williams is marketing.

Source: Email from National Families In Action The Marijuana Report The Marijuana Report.Org August 2017

The Coalition to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol is seeking signatures to place an initiative on Michigan’s November 2018 ballot. The measure would legalize marijuana for recreational use and allow residents to possess 880 joints at a time, the largest amount of any state in the nation.

Michigan News has done an admirable job of explaining this with pictures as well as words. See how here. The paper also provides a link to the proposed initiative.

Source: Email from National Families In Action The Marijuana Report The Marijuana Report.Org August 2017

Medical marijuana in Florida was approved by Governor Rick Scott last month and now school districts statewide are struggling with one specific requirement of the legislation. Under the law, children with certain ailments can use cannabis while at school and the districts are obligated to make it available to students as needed.

While medical marijuana for children is legal in Florida, the schools are resistant to creating cannabis-use policy as the language used in the law is ambiguous and inconsistent. The law requires schools to store and manage cannabis like other medications but does not provide a clear definition as to who can administer it to students.

Only an authorized caregiver can give medical marijuana to a child, yet the law does not afford school employees the power to act as a caregiver. Mitch Teitelbaum, an attorney for the Manatee County School District, says making schools provide the drug to students makes no sense when the school has no legal power to do so.

“The district is compelled to adhere to all state and federal laws,” said Teitelbaum, as reported by the Bradenton Herald. “But how do we do so with such inconsistency?”

The original medical cannabis law approved by Florida voters in November did not contain the school requirement provision, but was later modified to include it. This added amendment is causing both confusion and controversy to the new marijuana law.

Most Florida school districts turn to consulting firm NEOLA for help creating school policy. Currently, the company is reviewing the law and deciding how to move forward before making any recommendations to district officials.

According to NEOLA CEO Dick Clapp, Florida’s medical marijuana law puts “schools in a real tough spot” by making them create a policy that potentially opens them up to lawsuits. Once one district comes up with solid guidelines regulating how cannabis will be given to students, other districts are likely to follow. However, Clapp says that isn’t likely to happen before the start of the 2017-18 school year.

As of now, not many children are affected by the medical marijuana law in Florida. Yet, the families that are impacted want the state’s school districts or the Florida Department of Education to make a decision.

“The number of people that will be impacted will be a small number, but they are in dire situations, so it is a tough human-relations thing,” Clapp said, per the report by the Bradenton Herald. “I don’t know what we do about that.”

It is likely the Florida school districts with the highest number of students will act first to create medical marijuana guidelines. For now, the most probable scenario will be treating medical cannabis like any other prescription medication.

The medical marijuana law in Florida allows children with severe epilepsy, cancer, and other qualifying conditions to be treated with cannabis oil, capsules, and edibles. Due to federal restrictions regarding prescribing weed for medical purposes, marijuana treatment is only available by recommendation from state-approved physicians to Florida patients.

Source: https://www.inquisitr.com/4399383/medical-marijuana-in-florida-creates-policy-smoky-challenge-for-states-school-districts/ July 2017

Government warnings about fentanyl hitting UK streets have inadvertently sparked a demand for the deadly opioid among drug users, a community leader has told IBTimes UK.

Last month, the National Crime Agency (NCA) revealed that 60 drug deaths had been linked to fentanyl and its cousins, including the elephant tranquilizer carfentanyl, since December 2016.

This followed a warning in April from Public Health England (PHE) that the synthetic opiates, which are 50 to 10,000 times stronger than heroin, were being mixed with the street drug.

But these announcements have merely whetted the appetite of some heroin users, according to Martin McCusker, chair of the Lambeth Service User Council, a support network for drug users in south London.

“The warnings have generated a lot of interest among drug users who think ‘wow – this fentanyl stuff is sh*t cool – it must be really strong’,” he said.

McCusker said he was not surprised by the response of his peers when they learned that fentanyl, which is ravaging communities across North America, was becoming more prevalent in this country.

“We get these warnings about overdoses but that’s not what we hear,” he said, adding that a drug user’s typical thought process might be: “Wow, people are overdosing in Wandsworth. Oh right, they must have good gear in Wandsworth.”

As little as 0.002g of fentanyl and 0.00002g of carfentanyl – a few grains – can be fatal. When dealers mix this with heroin the resultant product may contain “hotspots” – unintended concentrations of the more potent substances.

People experiencing an opioid overdose effectively forget to breathe as their respiratory systems shut down.

McCusker acknowledged agencies’ predicaments when it comes to safeguarding drug users without giving harmful substances undue publicity.

But he said the government warnings, combined with media coverage about the spate of fentanyl-related deaths in the UK, had acted as “adverts” for the extra-strong painkiller, which killed the pop musician Prince.

“It’s not that people want fentanyl. It’s that people want stronger opioids and if fentanyl comes along then great,” he said. “Just today I was talking to this guy and he said ‘this dealer in [redacted] estate has got fentanyl.'”

McCusker claimed fentanyl was not being discussed among people who use heroin in the Brixton area until about six months ago, when reports of it being mixed with UK street supplies hit the mainstream press.

Recent interventions from government agencies had only heightened the buzz surrounding the drug, he added.

A spokesperson for PHE said: “The alert we put out was aimed primarily at emergency, medical and other frontline professionals. But we are aware that the decision about whether, and when, to issue an alert about a dangerous drug is a delicate balance between informing the right people to prevent overdoses and not driving demand for it.”

No UK opioid epidemic – for now

At least 60 drug-related deaths have been linked to fentanyl and its analogues in the last eight months, according to figures released by the NCA at a briefing on 31 July. That number refers to cases where the substances showed up in toxicology reports and does not mean they were the outright cause of death.

The synthetic substances, largely imported from Chinese manufacturers, were not instrumental to the recent surge in UK opiate deaths, which jumped from 1,290 in 2012 to 2,038 in 2016. That rise has been attributed to an ageing heroin-using population more prone to underlying health problems, and the increased purity of street heroin.

McCusker pointed out that it was impossible for users to know they were buying fentanyl-laced heroin “unless you’ve got an amazing drug testing kit at home”. He said that some of the excitement surrounding fentanyl was “just hype”.

NCA Deputy Director Ian Cruxton told reporters at the July briefing he was “cautiously optimistic” that the UK heroin market would not be flooded with fentanyl.

He said there had been a significant reduction in fentanyl-related deaths after major busts on mixing ‘labs’ in Leeds and Wales as well as the seizure of dark web marketplaces Alpha Bay and Hansa by law enforcement agencies.

In an April briefing paper, the NCA said: “We have not seen any evidence to date of UK heroin users demanding fentanyl-laced heroin.” McCusker’s testimony suggests the tide may have turned.

Source: https://www.ibtimes.co.uk/heroin-addicts-now-want-fentanyl-after-government-campaign-advertises-how-much-stronger-it-1634152 August 2017

The authors compare the clinical features of idiopathic psychosis (eg, schizophrenia) with cannabis-induced psychosis.

As cannabis consumption rises, there has been significant emerging evidence for cannabis-related risks. Here: a comparison of the clinical features of idiopathic psychosis (eg, schizophrenia) versus cannabis-induced psychosis (CIP). Scroll through the slides for 8 distinguishing features

Source: https://www.psychiatrictimes.com/view/8-distinguishing-features-primary-psychosis-versus-cannabis-induced-psychosis August 2017

Question  Are US state medical marijuana laws one of the underlying factors for increases in risk for adult cannabis use and cannabis use disorders seen since the early 1990s?

Findings  In this analysis using US national survey data collected in 1991-1992, 2001-2002, and 2012-2013 from 118 497 participants, the risk for cannabis use and cannabis use disorders increased at a significantly greater rate in states that passed medical marijuana laws than in states that did not.

Meaning  Possible adverse consequences of illicit cannabis use due to more permissive state cannabis laws should receive consideration by voters, legislators, and policy and health care professionals, with appropriate health care planning as such laws change.

Abstract

Importance  Over the last 25 years, illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders have increased among US adults, and 28 states have passed medical marijuana laws (MML). Little is known about MML and adult illicit cannabis use or cannabis use disorders considered over time.

Objective  To present national data on state MML and degree of change in the prevalence of cannabis use and disorders.

Design, Participants, and Setting  Differences in the degree of change between those living in MML states and other states were examined using 3 cross-sectional US adult surveys: the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES; 1991-1992), the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; 2001-2002), and the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III (NESARC-III; 2012-2013). Early-MML states passed MML between NLAES and NESARC (“earlier period”). Late-MML states passed MML between NESARC and NESARC-III (“later period”).

Main Outcomes and Measures  Past-year illicit cannabis use and DSMIV cannabis use disorder.

Results  Overall, from 1991-1992 to 2012-2013, illicit cannabis use increased significantly more in states that passed MML than in other states (1.4–percentage point more; SE, 0.5; P = .004), as did cannabis use disorders (0.7–percentage point more; SE, 0.3; P = .03). In the earlier period, illicit cannabis use and disorders decreased similarly in non-MML states and in California (where prevalence was much higher to start with). In contrast, in remaining early-MML states, the prevalence of use and disorders increased. Remaining early-MML and non-MML states differed significantly for use (by 2.5 percentage points; SE, 0.9; P = .004) and disorder (1.1 percentage points; SE, 0.5; P = .02). In the later period, illicit use increased by the following percentage points: never-MML states, 3.5 (SE, 0.5); California, 5.3 (SE, 1.0); Colorado, 7.0 (SE, 1.6); other early-MML states, 2.6 (SE, 0.9); and late-MML states, 5.1 (SE, 0.8). Compared with never-MML states, increases in use were significantly greater in late-MML states (1.6–percentage point more; SE, 0.6; P = .01), California (1.8–percentage point more; SE, 0.9; P = .04), and Colorado (3.5–percentage point more; SE, 1.5; P = .03). Increases in cannabis use disorder, which was less prevalent, were smaller but followed similar patterns descriptively, with change greater than never-MML states in California (1.0–percentage point more; SE, 0.5; P = .06) and Colorado (1.6–percentage point more; SE, 0.8; P = .04).

Conclusions and Relevance  Medical marijuana laws appear to have contributed to increased prevalence of illicit cannabis use and cannabis use disorders. State-specific policy changes may also have played a role. While medical marijuana may help some, cannabis-related health consequences associated with changes in state marijuana laws should receive consideration by health care professionals and the public.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2619522 June 2017

Marijuana use increases the risk of death from high blood pressure, a new study has found.

A survey published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology calculated the risk of death resulting from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular causes. In the years 2005-2006 a total of 1,213 participants were asked if they smoked marijuana.

Those who answered ‘yes’ were then considered to be marijuana users, and the age they said they first tried the drug was subtracted from their current age. This calculated the duration of use.

Results found that 34 per cent used neither marijuana nor cigarettes, 21 per cent used only marijuana, 16 per cent used marijuana and were past smokers and 4 per cent smoked only cigarettes.

The average duration of marijuana use based on the calculations was 11 and a half years.

Those who smoked marijuana had a 3.42 times higher risk of dying from hypertension, and the risk grew by 1.04 each year of use.

There was however, no association between marijuana use and death from heart disease or cerebrovascular disease.

Lead author of the study, Barbara A Yankey, a PhD student in the School of Public Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta told Science Daily: “Our results suggest a possible risk of hypertension mortality from marijuana use. This is not surprising since marijuana is known to have a number of effects on the cardiovascular system. Marijuana stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increases in heart rate, blood pressure and oxygen demand. Emergency rooms have reported cases of angina and heart attacks after marijuana use.

“We found higher estimated cardiovascular risks associated with marijuana use than cigarette smoking.

“This indicates that marijuana use may carry even heavier consequences on the cardiovascular system than that already established for cigarette smoking. However, the number of smokers in our study was small and this needs to be examined in a larger study.

“Needless to say, the detrimental effects of marijuana on brain function far exceed that of cigarette smoking.”

The study does not deny the medicinal properties of the herb, but cautions against prolonged recreational use, stating: “We are not disputing the possible medicinal benefits of standardised cannabis formulations; however, recreational use of marijuana should be approached with caution. It is possible that discouraging recreational marijuana use may ultimately impact reductions in mortality from cardiovascular causes.”

Source: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/marijuana-use-high-blood-pressure-risk-death-study-cannabis-weed-cigarettes-a7888711.html August 2017

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